Native Law

  • Bill S. v. State, Department of Health & Social Services
    In Bill S. v. State, Department of Health & Social Services, the Supreme Court held that clear and convincing evidence of active efforts to prevent the breakup of an Indian Family under the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) must include documented efforts to provide specific assistance rather than vague and overgeneralized testimony. The Office of ...
  • Sam M. v. State, Department of Health & Social Services
    In Sam M. v. State, Department of Health & Social Services, the supreme court reiterated that courts must look to the Office of Children Services’ (OCS) efforts during the entirety of a case to assess whether it made active efforts to keep Indian children with their parents. Sam M. sought custody of his biological daughter ...

Native Law

  • Bill S. v. State, Department of Health & Social Services
    In Bill S. v. State, Department of Health & Social Services, the Supreme Court held that clear and convincing evidence of active efforts to prevent the breakup of an Indian Family under the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) must include documented efforts to provide specific assistance rather than vague and overgeneralized testimony. The Office of ...
  • Sam M. v. State, Department of Health & Social Services
    In Sam M. v. State, Department of Health & Social Services, the supreme court reiterated that courts must look to the Office of Children Services’ (OCS) efforts during the entirety of a case to assess whether it made active efforts to keep Indian children with their parents. Sam M. sought custody of his biological daughter ...